Original flow chart for the management of hydroureteronephrosis caused by pessary placement


Hydroureteronephrosis due to pessary is a dangerous complication that can become critical if urosepsis is present. We propose a flow chart to manage the condition.


The use of a pessary to treat a pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a valid non-invasive option. Severe complications are usually associated with neglected, oversized, or misplaced pessaries. Major complications include fistulas, bowel or bladder erosion, and hydroureteronephrosis (HUN).

Materials and methods

We reviewed the literature and our experience in the management of HUN in the last decade, as a consequence of pessary placement.


We used flow charts to take an accurate medical history of each patient. Blood and urine analyses were taken at admission to assess the potential presence of sepsis, renal failure, and urinary tract infection. Physical examination included vaginal examination. In cases of pessary presence with a concomitant increase of serum creatinine value, a possible ureteral obstruction is suspected. In order to assess the presence of HUN and its underlying causes, a computed tomography (CT) scan should be performed to assess the mechanism of urinary tract obstruction. However, in case of renal insufficiency, abdominal ultrasonography (US) could be sufficient. If HUN is detected in a patient with no signs of urosepsis, we suggest a conservative management by the removal of the pessary and catheter placement. When urosepsis is suspected, it is mandatory to administer antibiotic therapy and evaluate the HUN drainage by nephrostomy.


There is no uniform management of women with HUN and a concomitant pessary. For this reason, and based on the literature and our experience, we propose an original management flowchart.

Urologia 2017; 84(4): 240 - 243




Matteo Balzarro, Emanuele Rubilotta, Antonio B. Porcaro, Nicolò Trabacchin, Antonio D’Amico, Maria Angela Cerruto, Walter Artibani

Article History


Financial support: No grants or funding have been received for this study.
Conflict of interest: None of the authors has financial interest related to this study to disclose.

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  • Department of Urology, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata (A.O.U.I.), Verona - Italy

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